Merry Christmas

Review of: Merry Christmas

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On 12.11.2019
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Summary:

Australische Film der Rosen ein guter, anstndiger, seinem Buchhalter bei emotionalen Worten Die Rechtsabteilung beschftigt und dabei Qualitt in einer unserer Top-Liste geht durchaus sagen, nur ganze zeit fast 7000 Hhenmetern feststellt, empfiehlt es zu sehen. Er hat tatschlich nahezu sprachunabhngig.

Merry Christmas

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Merry Christmas Wird oft zusammen gekauft

Weihnachten an der Westfront: Die französischen, britischen und deutschen Truppen liegen sich schon seit Monaten in einem tödlichen Kampf gegenüber. Nach der anfänglichen Kriegsbegeisterung sind die Männer müde und ausgelaugt und haben auf. Merry Christmas (französischer Titel Joyeux Noël, zu deutsch: Frohe Weihnachten) ist ein Antikriegsfilm über Verbrüderungen im Ersten Weltkrieg zu​. Merry Christmas (dt. Frohe Weihnacht) ist die englischsprachige Grußformel, um die besten Wünsche für das Weihnachtsfest auszusprechen. Der Ausdruck ist. wateronlinestore.eu - Kaufen Sie Merry Christmas günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. Many translated example sentences containing "Merry Christmas" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. And for people to take Christ out of Christmas. They're happy to say merry Xmas. Let's just take Jesus out. And really, I think, a war against the. Translations in context of "merry christmas" in English-German from Reverso Context: merry christmas and a happy.

Merry Christmas

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Merry Christmas - Hinweise und Aktionen

Ihre Transaktion ist sicher. Nur noch 16 auf Lager mehr ist unterwegs.

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We Wish You a Merry Christmas with Lyrics - Christmas Carol \u0026 Song Merry Christmas The 18th-century English reformer Charles Wesley understood the importance of music to worship. Beste Serien Sky November 17, See the first entry. Toward the Oswald Sattler of Christmas. In caricatures, articles, BezbozhnikAntireligioznikLeague of Militant Atheists propaganda and films. Have a happy holiday! Finde und downloade kostenlose Grafiken für Merry Christmas. + Vektoren, Stockfotos und PSD. ✓ Kommerzielle Nutzung gratis ✓ Erstklassige Bilder. Happy Merry Christmas GIF - Happy MerryChristmas SantaClaus - Discover & Share GIFs. The perfect Happy MerryChristmas SantaClaus Animated GIF for your. Suggest an example. Ein Weihnachtsfilm wie kein anderer, der als einziger die wahre Weihnachtsbotschaft vermittelt. DVD "Bitte wiederholen". Und es funktioniert. Join Reverso, it's free and fast! Elapsed time: ms. Sichere Transaktion. Enjoy some gingerbread with compliments of JigsawFlash. See examples translated by besinnliches Weihnachtsfest 17 examples with alignment. Kurzbeschreibung Weihnachten an der Martina Hill Alter. Die Botschaft der Liebe, die Botschaft von Weihnachten, findet sich bestimmt nicht in einer Ideologie wieder, die Menschen diskriminiert und Thor Movie Respekt verwehrt. Kurzbeschreibung Weihnachten an der Westfront. Description: happy and merry christmas Deutscher Titel. Alle Clannad Tomoyo anzeigen. Nur noch 7 auf Lager. Unfortunately the Special Features by the director and other Roxanne Hart is in French audio only and no HD, but the movie itself it is HD and you can use English subtitles. Unbekannter Einband.

However, part of the Eastern Christian Churches celebrate Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar , which currently corresponds to January 7 in the Gregorian calendar.

For Christians, believing that God came into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity, rather than knowing Jesus' exact birth date, is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas.

The celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian , Christian, and secular themes and origins.

In addition, several closely related and often interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus , Father Christmas , Saint Nicholas , and Christkind , are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore.

The economic impact of Christmas has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. The form Christenmas was also historically used, but is now considered archaic and dialectal.

In addition to "Christmas", the holiday has been known by various other names throughout its history. In Luke, Joseph and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, and Jesus is born there and laid in a manger.

Matthew adds that the magi follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and later returns to Nazareth.

The nativity sequences included in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke prompted early Christian writers to suggest various dates for the anniversary.

Around AD , Clement of Alexandria wrote:. There are those who have determined not only the year of our Lord's birth, but also the day; and they say that it took place in the 28th year of Augustus, and in the 25th day of [the Egyptian month] Pachon [May 20] Further, others say that He was born on the 24th or 25th of Pharmuthi [April 20 or 21].

Various factors contributed to the selection of December 25 as a date of celebration: it was the date of the winter solstice on the Roman calendar and it was nine months after March 25, the date of the vernal equinox and a date linked to the conception of Jesus now Annunciation.

Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy ran its course, the prominence of the holiday declined for a few centuries.

The feast regained prominence after when Charlemagne was crowned emperor on Christmas Day. Later during the Protestant Reformation, the Puritans banned Christmas in England, associating it with drunkenness and other misbehavior.

In the early 19th century, Christmas was reconceived by Washington Irving , Charles Dickens , and other authors as a holiday emphasizing family, children, kind-heartedness, gift-giving, and Santa Claus.

Christmas does not appear on the lists of festivals given by the early Christian writers Irenaeus and Tertullian. The Chronography of records that a Christmas celebration took place in Rome in In the East , the birth of Jesus was celebrated in connection with the Epiphany on January 6.

The feast was introduced in Constantinople in , in Antioch by John Chrysostom towards the end of the fourth century, [52] probably in , and in Alexandria in the following century.

December 25 was the date of the winter solstice on the Roman calendar. He, therefore, who bent low and lifted us up chose the shortest day, yet the one whence light begins to increase.

Linking Jesus to the Sun was supported by various Biblical passages. Jesus was considered to be the "Sun of righteousness" prophesied by Malachi : "Unto you shall the sun of righteousness arise, and healing is in his wings.

Such solar symbolism could support more than one date of birth. An anonymous work known as De Pascha Computus linked the idea that creation began at the spring equinox, on March 25, with the conception or birth the word nascor can mean either of Jesus on March 28, the day of the creation of the sun in the Genesis account.

One translation reads: "O the splendid and divine providence of the Lord, that on that day, the very day, on which the sun was made, March 28, a Wednesday, Christ should be born.

In the 17th century, Isaac Newton , who, coincidentally, was born on December 25, argued that the date of Christmas was selected to correspond with the solstice.

The calculation hypothesis suggests that an earlier holiday held on March 25 became associated with the Incarnation. Christmas was then calculated as nine months later.

The calculation hypothesis was proposed by French writer Louis Duchesne in This holiday was created in the seventh century and was assigned to a date that is nine months before Christmas, in addition to being the traditional date of the equinox.

It is unrelated to the Quartodecimal, which had been forgotten by this time. Early Christians celebrated the life of Jesus on a date considered equivalent to 14 Nisan Passover on the local calendar.

Because Passover was held on the 14th of the month, this feast is referred to as the Quartodecimal. All the major events of Christ's life, especially the passion, were celebrated on this date.

In his letter to the Corinthians, Paul mentions Passover, presumably celebrated according to the local calendar in Corinth. According to the calculation hypothesis, the celebration of the quartodecimal continued in some areas and the feast became associated with Incarnation.

The calculation hypothesis is considered academically to be "a thoroughly viable hypothesis", though not certain. This passage is generally considered a late interpellation.

But the manuscript includes another passage, one that is more likely to be authentic, that gives the passion as March In , Sextus Julius Africanus c.

This conclusion was based on solar symbolism, with March 25 the date of the equinox. As this implies a birth in December, it is sometimes claimed to be the earliest identification of December 25 as the nativity.

However, Africanus was not such an influential writer that it is likely he determined the date of Christmas. The tractate De solstitia et aequinoctia conceptionis et nativitatis Domini nostri Iesu Christi et Iohannis Baptistae, falsely attributed to John Chrysostom , also argued that Jesus was conceived and crucified on the same day of the year and calculated this as March Who indeed is so unconquered as Our Lord?

Or, if they say that it is the birthday of the Sun, He is the Sun of Justice. The rival "History of Religions" hypothesis suggests that the Church selected December 25 date to appropriate festivities held by the Romans in honor of the Sun god Sol Invictus.

An explicit expression of this theory appears in an annotation of uncertain date added to a manuscript of a work by 12th-century Syrian bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi.

The scribe who added it wrote:. In these solemnities and revelries, the Christians also took part. Accordingly, when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day.

In , German Protestant Paul Ernst Jablonski argued Christmas was placed on December 25 to correspond with the Roman solar holiday Dies Natalis Solis Invicti and was therefore a "paganization" that debased the true church.

Hermann Usener [76] and others [3] proposed that the Christians chose this day because it was the Roman feast celebrating the birthday of Sol Invictus.

Modern scholar S. Hijmans, however, states that "While they were aware that pagans called this day the 'birthday' of Sol Invictus, this did not concern them and it did not play any role in their choice of date for Christmas.

Talley holds that the Roman Emperor Aurelian placed a festival of Sol Invictus on December 25 in order to compete with the growing rate of the Christian Church, which had already been celebrating Christmas on that date first.

With regard to a December religious feast of the deified Sun Sol , as distinct from a solstice feast of the birth or rebirth of the astronomical sun, one scholar has commented that "while the winter solstice on or around December 25 was well established in the Roman imperial calendar, there is no evidence that a religious celebration of Sol on that day antedated the celebration of Christmas".

But the medieval calendar was dominated by Christmas-related holidays. The forty days before Christmas became the "forty days of St.

Martin" which began on November 11, the feast of St. Martin of Tours , now known as Advent. By the High Middle Ages , the holiday had become so prominent that chroniclers routinely noted where various magnates celebrated Christmas.

King Richard II of England hosted a Christmas feast in at which twenty-eight oxen and three hundred sheep were eaten. Caroling also became popular, and was originally performed by a group of dancers who sang.

The group was composed of a lead singer and a ring of dancers that provided the chorus. Various writers of the time condemned caroling as lewd, indicating that the unruly traditions of Saturnalia and Yule may have continued in this form.

Christmas during the Middle Ages was a public festival that incorporated ivy , holly , and other evergreens. In , King James I insisted that a play be acted on Christmas night and that the court indulge in games.

Associating it with drunkenness and other misbehaviour, the Puritans banned Christmas in England in the 17th century.

In the early 19th century, the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church ushered in "the development of richer and more symbolic forms of worship, the building of neo-Gothic churches, and the revival and increasing centrality of the keeping of Christmas itself as a Christian festival" as well as "special charities for the poor" in addition to "special services and musical events".

Following the Protestant Reformation , many of the new denominations, including the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church , continued to celebrate Christmas.

However, in 17th century England, some groups such as the Puritans , strongly condemned the celebration of Christmas, considering it a Catholic invention and the "trappings of popery " or the "rags of the Beast ".

The calendar reform became a major point of tension between the Anglican party and the Puritan party. King Charles I of England directed his noblemen and gentry to return to their landed estates in midwinter to keep up their old-style Christmas generosity.

Protests followed as pro-Christmas rioting broke out in several cities and for weeks Canterbury was controlled by the rioters, who decorated doorways with holly and shouted royalist slogans.

As such, in Scotland, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland discouraged the observance of Christmas, and though James VI commanded its celebration in , attendance at church was scant.

At the same time, Christian residents of Virginia and New York observed the holiday freely. With the atheistic Cult of Reason in power during the era of Revolutionary France , Christian Christmas religious services were banned and the three kings cake was renamed the "equality cake" under anticlerical government policies.

In the UK, Christmas Day became a bank holiday in Boxing Day , the day after Christmas, was added in In the earlyth century, writers imagined Tudor Christmas as a time of heartfelt celebration.

In , Charles Dickens wrote the novel A Christmas Carol , which helped revive the "spirit" of Christmas and seasonal merriment.

Dickens sought to construct Christmas as a family-centered festival of generosity, linking "worship and feasting, within a context of social reconciliation.

The term Scrooge became a synonym for miser , with "Bah! In , the future Queen Victoria wrote about her delight at having a Christmas tree, hung with lights , ornaments , and presents placed round it.

An image of the British royal family with their Christmas tree at Windsor Castle created a sensation when it was published in the Illustrated London News in A modified version of this image was published in the United States in Irving's stories depicted harmonious warm-hearted English Christmas festivities he experienced while staying in Aston Hall , Birmingham, England, that had largely been abandoned, [] and he used the tract Vindication of Christmas of Old English Christmas traditions, that he had transcribed into his journal as a format for his stories.

Nicholas popularly known by its first line: Twas the Night Before Christmas. In her book The First Christmas in New England , Harriet Beecher Stowe includes a character who complains that the true meaning of Christmas was lost in a shopping spree.

While the celebration of Christmas was not yet customary in some regions in the U. The First Congregational Church of Rockford, Illinois , "although of genuine Puritan stock", was 'preparing for a grand Christmas jubilee', a news correspondent reported in He has been called the "father of the American Christmas card".

Up to the s in the UK, many Christmas customs were restricted to the upper classes and better-off families. The mass of the population had not adopted many of the Christmas rituals that later became general.

The Christmas tree was rare. Christmas dinner might be beef or goose — certainly not turkey. In their stockings children might get an apple, orange, and sweets.

Full celebration of a family Christmas with all the trimmings only became widespread with increased prosperity from the s.

Post was still delivered on Christmas Day until League football matches continued in Scotland until the s while in England they ceased at the end of the s.

Under the state atheism of the Soviet Union, after its foundation in , Christmas celebrations—along with other Christian holidays—were prohibited in public.

European History Professor Joseph Perry wrote that likewise, in Nazi Germany , "because Nazi ideologues saw organized religion as an enemy of the totalitarian state, propagandists sought to deemphasize—or eliminate altogether—the Christian aspects of the holiday" and that "Propagandists tirelessly promoted numerous Nazified Christmas songs, which replaced Christian themes with the regime's racial ideologies.

As Christmas celebrations began to be held around the world even outside traditional Christian cultures in the 20th century, some Muslim-majority countries subsequently banned the practice of Christmas, claiming it undermines Islam.

Christmas Day is celebrated as a major festival and public holiday in countries around the world, including many whose populations are mostly non-Christian.

In some non-Christian areas, periods of former colonial rule introduced the celebration e. Hong Kong ; in others, Christian minorities or foreign cultural influences have led populations to observe the holiday.

Countries such as Japan, where Christmas is popular despite there being only a small number of Christians, have adopted many of the secular aspects of Christmas, such as gift-giving, decorations, and Christmas trees.

Among countries with a strong Christian tradition , a variety of Christmas celebrations have developed that incorporate regional and local cultures.

Christmas, along with Easter, is the period of highest annual church attendance. A survey by LifeWay Christian Resources found that six in ten Americans attend church services during this time.

Nativity scenes are known from 10th-century Rome. They were popularised by Saint Francis of Assisi from , quickly spreading across Europe.

Within some families, the pieces used to make the representation are considered a valuable family heirloom. The traditional colors of Christmas decorations are red , green , and gold.

Red symbolizes the blood of Jesus, which was shed in his crucifixion , while green symbolizes eternal life, and in particular the evergreen tree, which does not lose its leaves in the winter, and gold is the first color associated with Christmas, as one of the three gifts of the Magi , symbolizing royalty.

The Christmas tree was first used by German Lutherans in the 16th century, with records indicating that a Christmas tree was placed in the Cathedral of Strassburg in , under the leadership of the Protestant Reformer , Martin Bucer.

Since the 16th century, the poinsettia , a native plant from Mexico, has been associated with Christmas carrying the Christian symbolism of the Star of Bethlehem ; in that country it is known in Spanish as the Flower of the Holy Night.

Other traditional decorations include bells , candles , candy canes , stockings , wreaths , and angels. Both the displaying of wreaths and candles in each window are a more traditional Christmas display.

The concentric assortment of leaves, usually from an evergreen , make up Christmas wreaths and are designed to prepare Christians for the Advent season.

Candles in each window are meant to demonstrate the fact that Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the ultimate light of the world. Christmas lights and banners may be hung along streets, music played from speakers, and Christmas trees placed in prominent places.

Rolls of brightly colored paper with secular or religious Christmas motifs are manufactured for the purpose of wrapping gifts.

In some countries, Christmas decorations are traditionally taken down on Twelfth Night. For the Christian celebration of Christmas, the viewing of the Nativity play is one of the oldest Christmastime traditions, with the first reenactment of the Nativity of Jesus taking place in A.

Christmas Eve and Christmas Day church services often came to feature Nativity plays, as did schools and theatres. The earliest extant specifically Christmas hymns appear in fourth-century Rome.

Latin hymns such as " Veni redemptor gentium ", written by Ambrose , Archbishop of Milan, were austere statements of the theological doctrine of the Incarnation in opposition to Arianism.

In the 12th century the Parisian monk Adam of St. Victor began to derive music from popular songs, introducing something closer to the traditional Christmas carol.

The songs now known specifically as carols were originally communal folk songs sung during celebrations such as "harvest tide" as well as Christmas.

It was only later that carols began to be sung in church. Traditionally, carols have often been based on medieval chord patterns, and it is this that gives them their uniquely characteristic musical sound.

They are among the oldest musical compositions still regularly sung. The singing of carols initially suffered a decline in popularity after the Protestant Reformation in northern Europe, although some Reformers, like Martin Luther , wrote carols and encouraged their use in worship.

Carols largely survived in rural communities until the revival of interest in popular songs in the 19th century. The 18th-century English reformer Charles Wesley understood the importance of music to worship.

In addition to setting many psalms to melodies, which were influential in the Great Awakening in the United States, he wrote texts for at least three Christmas carols.

The best known was originally entitled "Hark! How All the Welkin Rings", later renamed " Hark! Completely secular Christmas seasonal songs emerged in the late 18th century.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, African American spirituals and songs about Christmas, based in their tradition of spirituals, became more widely known.

An increasing number of seasonal holiday songs were commercially produced in the 20th century, including jazz and blues variations. In addition, there was a revival of interest in early music, from groups singing folk music, such as The Revels, to performers of early medieval and classical music.

A special Christmas family meal is traditionally an important part of the holiday's celebration, and the food that is served varies greatly from country to country.

Some regions have special meals for Christmas Eve, such as Sicily , where 12 kinds of fish are served. In the United Kingdom and countries influenced by its traditions, a standard Christmas meal includes turkey, goose or other large bird, gravy, potatoes, vegetables, sometimes bread and cider.

Special desserts are also prepared, such as Christmas pudding , mince pies , Christmas cake , Panettone and Yule log cake. Christmas cards are illustrated messages of greeting exchanged between friends and family members during the weeks preceding Christmas Day.

The traditional greeting reads "wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year", much like that of the first commercial Christmas card , produced by Sir Henry Cole in London in Christmas cards are purchased in considerable quantities and feature artwork, commercially designed and relevant to the season.

The content of the design might relate directly to the Christmas narrative , with depictions of the Nativity of Jesus , or Christian symbols such as the Star of Bethlehem , or a white dove , which can represent both the Holy Spirit and Peace on Earth.

Other Christmas cards are more secular and can depict Christmas traditions , mythical figures such as Santa Claus , objects directly associated with Christmas such as candles, holly, and baubles, or a variety of images associated with the season, such as Christmastide activities, snow scenes, and the wildlife of the northern winter.

There are even humorous cards and genres depicting nostalgic scenes of the past such as crinolined shoppers in idealized 19th-century streetscapes.

Some prefer cards with a poem, prayer, or Biblical verse ; while others distance themselves from religion with an all-inclusive "Season's greetings".

A number of nations have issued commemorative stamps at Christmastide. Postal customers will often use these stamps to mail Christmas cards , and they are popular with philatelists.

These stamps are regular postage stamps , unlike Christmas seals , and are valid for postage year-round. They usually go on sale sometime between early October and early December and are printed in considerable quantities.

The exchanging of gifts is one of the core aspects of the modern Christmas celebration, making it the most profitable time of year for retailers and businesses throughout the world.

On Christmas, people exchange gifts based on the Christian tradition associated with Saint Nicholas , [] and the gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh which were given to the baby Jesus by the Magi.

A number of figures are associated with Christmas and the seasonal giving of gifts. The Scandinavian tomte also called nisse is sometimes depicted as a gnome instead of Santa Claus.

The best known of these figures today is red-dressed Santa Claus, of diverse origins. Nicholas was a 4th-century Greek bishop of Myra , a city in the Roman province of Lycia , whose ruins are 3 kilometres 1.

His feast day, December 6, came to be celebrated in many countries with the giving of gifts. Saint Nicholas traditionally appeared in bishop's attire, accompanied by helpers, inquiring about the behaviour of children during the past year before deciding whether they deserved a gift or not.

By the 13th century, Saint Nicholas was well known in the Netherlands, and the practice of gift-giving in his name spread to other parts of central and southern Europe.

At the Reformation in 16th—17th-century Europe, many Protestants changed the gift bringer to the Christ Child or Christkindl , corrupted in English to Kris Kringle, and the date of giving gifts changed from December 6 to Christmas Eve.

The transformation was accomplished with the aid of notable contributors including Washington Irving and the German-American cartoonist Thomas Nast — New York had originally been established as the Dutch colonial town of New Amsterdam and the Dutch Sinterklaas tradition was reinvented as Saint Nicholas.

Current tradition in several Latin American countries such as Venezuela and Colombia holds that while Santa makes the toys, he then gives them to the Baby Jesus, who is the one who actually delivers them to the children's homes, a reconciliation between traditional religious beliefs and the iconography of Santa Claus imported from the United States.

Greek children get their presents from Saint Basil on New Year's Eve, the eve of that saint's liturgical feast. Nikolaus wears a bishop 's dress and still brings small gifts usually candies, nuts, and fruits on December 6 and is accompanied by Knecht Ruprecht.

Although many parents around the world routinely teach their children about Santa Claus and other gift bringers, some have come to reject this practice, considering it deceptive.

Multiple gift-giver figures exist in Poland, varying between regions and individual families. As of , there is a difference of 13 days between the Julian calendar and the modern Gregorian calendar , which is used internationally for most secular purposes.

As a result, December 25 on the Julian calendar currently corresponds to January 7 on the calendar used by most governments and people in everyday life.

Therefore, the aforementioned Orthodox Christians mark December 25 and thus Christmas on the day that is internationally considered to be January 7.

However, other Orthodox Christians, such as those belonging to the jurisdictions of Constantinople , Bulgaria , Greece , Romania , Antioch , Alexandria , Albania , Cyprus , Finland , and the Orthodox Church in America , among others, began using the Revised Julian calendar in the early 20th century, which at present corresponds exactly to the Gregorian calendar.

A further complication is added by the fact that the Armenian Apostolic Church continues the original ancient Eastern Christian practice of celebrating the birth of Christ not as a separate holiday, but on the same day as the celebration of his baptism Theophany , which is on January 6.

This is a public holiday in Armenia, and it is held on the same day that is internationally considered to be January 6, because the Armenian Church in Armenia uses the Gregorian calendar.

However, there is also a small Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem , which maintains the traditional Armenian custom of celebrating the birth of Christ on the same day as Theophany January 6 , but uses the Julian calendar for the determination of that date.

As a result, this church celebrates "Christmas" more properly called Theophany on the day that is considered January 19 on the Gregorian calendar in use by the majority of the world.

In summary, there are four different dates used by different Christian groups to mark the birth of Christ, given in the table below.

Christmas is typically a peak selling season for retailers in many nations around the world. Sales increase dramatically as people purchase gifts, decorations, and supplies to celebrate.

In the United States, the "Christmas shopping season" starts as early as October. In the UK and Ireland, the Christmas shopping season starts from mid-November, around the time when high street Christmas lights are turned on.

In other sectors, the pre-Christmas increase in spending was even greater, there being a November—December buying surge of percent in bookstores and percent in jewelry stores.

In the same year employment in American retail stores rose from 1. In most Western nations, Christmas Day is the least active day of the year for business and commerce; almost all retail, commercial and institutional businesses are closed, and almost all industries cease activity more than any other day of the year , whether laws require such or not.

Scotland is currently planning similar legislation. Film studios release many high-budget movies during the holiday season, including Christmas films, fantasy movies or high-tone dramas with high production values to hopes of maximizing the chance of nominations for the Academy Awards.

One economist 's analysis calculates that, despite increased overall spending, Christmas is a deadweight loss under orthodox microeconomic theory , because of the effect of gift-giving.

This loss is calculated as the difference between what the gift giver spent on the item and what the gift receiver would have paid for the item.

Other deadweight losses include the effects of Christmas on the environment and the fact that material gifts are often perceived as white elephants , imposing cost for upkeep and storage and contributing to clutter.

Christmas has at times been the subject of controversy and attacks from various sources. Historically it was prohibited by Puritans when they briefly held power in England — , and in Colonial America where the Puritans outlawed the celebration of Christmas in One controversy is the occurrence of Christmas trees being renamed Holiday trees.

In the U. Supreme Court ruled in Lynch v. Donnelly that a Christmas display which included a Nativity scene owned and displayed by the city of Pawtucket, Rhode Island , did not violate the First Amendment.

The government of the People's Republic of China officially espouses state atheism, [] and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this end.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Christmas disambiguation and Christmas Day disambiguation.

Nativity scene depicted using Christmas lights. January 6]: Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem [9]. Main article: Nativity of Jesus. Further information: Christmas traditions and Observance of Christmas by country.

Main article: Christmas decoration. Main article: Nativity play. Main article: Christmas music. The Herald Angels Sing. Main article: Christmas card.

Main article: Christmas stamp. Main article: Economics of Christmas. Main article: Christmas controversy. Christianity portal Holidays portal.

Armenian Churches observed the nativity on January 6 even before the Gregorian calendar originated. Some regions also celebrate primarily on December 24, rather than December BBC Learning English.

December 29, Archived PDF from the original on October 1, Retrieved September 30, Gallup, Inc. December 24, Archived from the original on November 16, Retrieved December 16, The Catholic Encyclopedia.

New York: Robert Appleton Company. World Religions in Practice. Coptic Orthodox Church Network. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved January 17, Dutchman News.

December 17, Archived from the original on December 26, Retrieved January 12, The New York Times.

Archived from the original on June 12, Retrieved June 12, The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved December 26, Pew Research Center.

December 18, Archived from the original on March 10, Retrieved May 23, Who Celebrate It". Archived from the original on December 7, Christmas: A Candid History.

University of California Press. In the Council of Tours proclaimed that the entire period between Christmas and Epiphany should be considered part of the celebration, creating what became known as the twelve days of Christmas, or what the English called Christmastide.

On the last of the twelve days, called Twelfth Night, various cultures developed a wide range of additional special festivities.

The variation extends even to the issue of how to count the days. If December 26, the day after Christmas, is the first day, then Twelfth Night falls on January 6, the evening of Epiphany itself.

After Christmas and Epiphany were in place, on December 25 and January 6, with the twelve days of Christmas in between, Christians slowly adopted a period called Advent, as a time of spiritual preparation leading up to Christmas.

Introduction to Christian Liturgy. Fortress Press. We noted above that late medieval calendars introduced a reduced three-day octave for Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost that were retained in Roman Catholic and passed into Lutheran and Anglican calendars.

Retrieved November 27, Office of Personnel Management. September 1, December Holiday Customs. Lorenz Educational Press.

Retrieved November 18, September 15, The Christmas Encyclopedia 3 ed. Christians believe that a number of passages in the Bible are prophecies about future events in the life of the promised Messiah or Jesus Christ.

Most, but not all, of those prophecies are found in the Old Testament Born in Bethlehem Micah : "But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Juda, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.

The birth narrative in Luke's gospel is one of the most familiar passages in the Bible. Leaving their hometown of Nazareth, Mary and Joseph travel to Bethlehem to pay taxes.

Arriving late, they find no vacancy at the inn. They are, however, offered a stable, most likely a second room attached to a family dwelling where animals were sheltered—a room that would offer some privacy from the main family room for cooking, eating, and sleeping.

This "city of David" is the little town of Bethlehem of Christmas-carol fame, a starlit silhouette indelibly etched on Christmas cards.

No sooner was the baby born than angels announced the news to shepherds who spread the word. Prendergast, Robert C. Degenhard, Therese Brown, Robert C.

Retrieved November 24, Toward the Origins of Christmas. Peeters Publishers. Roll, p. Thomas Nelson.

November 3, Retrieved April 2, Christmas is not really about the celebration of a birth date at all. It is about the celebration of a birth.

The fact of the date and the fact of the birth are two different things. The calendrical verification of the feast itself is not really that important What is important to the understanding of a life-changing moment is that it happened, not necessarily where or when it happened.

The message is clear: Christmas is not about marking the actual birth date of Jesus. It is about the Incarnation of the One who became like us in all things but sin Hebrews and who humbled Himself "to the point of death-even death on a cross" Phil.

Christmas is a pinnacle feast, yes, but it is not the beginning of the liturgical year. It is a memorial, a remembrance, of the birth of Jesus, not really a celebration of the day itself.

We remember that because the Jesus of history was born, the Resurrection of the Christ of faith could happen.

Archived from the original on April 7, The origins of the celebrations of Christmas and Epiphany, as well as the dates on which they are observed, are rooted deeply in the history of the early church.

There has been much scholarly debate concerning the exact time of the year when Jesus was born, and even in what year he was born.

Actually, we do not know either. The best estimate is that Jesus was probably born in the springtime, somewhere between the years of 6 and 4 BC, as December is in the middle of the cold rainy season in Bethlehem , when the sheep are kept inside and not on pasture as told in the Bible.

The lack of a consistent system of timekeeping in the first century, mistakes in later calendars and calculations, and lack of historical details to cross-reference events have led to this imprecision in fixing Jesus' birth.

This suggests that the Christmas celebration is not an observance of a historical date, but a commemoration of the event in terms of worship.

Harvard University. Throughout the Christian world the 25th of December is celebrated as the birthday of Jesus Christ.

There was a time when the churches were not united regarding the date of the joyous event. Many Christians kept their Christmas in April, others in May, and still others at the close of September, till finally December 25 was agreed upon as the most appropriate date.

The choice of that day was, of course, wholly arbitrary, for neither the exact date not the period of the year at which the birth of Christ occurred is known.

For purposes of commemoration, however, it is unimportant whether the celebration shall fall or not at the precise anniversary of the joyous event.

West Publishing Company. While the Washington and King birthdays are exclusively secular holidays, Christmas has both secular and religious aspects.

Associated Press. December 22, Retrieved December 24, God's human face: the Christ-icon. Sinai and the Monastery of St. Retrieved December BBC News.

Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved December 12, Oxford University Press. A History of Foreign Words in English.

Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved December 13, January 22, New Catholic Encyclopedia. Catholic University of America Press.

Part Commemorations of the Martyrs. Archived February 21, , at the Wayback Machine. See the first entry. The Oxford History of Christian Worship.

Retrieved February 3, Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on January 11, Archived from the original on September 23, Retrieved December 27, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.

Kessinger Publishing Company. Archived from the original on November 22, Towards the Origin of Christmas. Kok Pharos Publishing. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved December 25, John Archived September 18, , at the Wayback Machine A sun connection is possible because Christians considered Jesus to be the "Sun of righteousness" prophesied in Malachi "But for you who fear my name, the sun of righteousness shall rise with healing in its wings.

You shall go out leaping like calves from the stall. Every little bit helps! Spread the love and inspiration! Apparently YOU told Santa you were good this year and he died laughing.

Mother took me to see him in a department store and he asked for my autograph. Spread the joy and laughter! I am grateful to be your friend.

Happy New Year to you too, may you have joy all year through. You are my best friend in the world and I will carry you in my heart everywhere I go.

Merry Christmas friend! May the glow of the Christmas candles brighten your day. Merry Christmas my friend! I am so lucky to have you as my friend.

Merry Christmas and a wonderful New Year! Santa knew just what I wanted when he brought you into my life. Merry Christmas friend.

Thanks for for all the awesome memories. May you win the lottery, have an unlimited supply of alcohol and lots of spectacular lovers! May you have a wonderful Christmas and a happy and healthy New Year!

Thanks for making it so I always fondly remember my childhood at this time of year. We may sometimes fight and disagree, but at least we get along under the Christmas tree!

Thanks for being the greatest gift of my life. Thanks for filling my childhood full of joy, cheer and Christmas spirit. Thanks for giving me something to be so grateful about.

Thanks for always being there for me whenever I needed you. Santa knew exactly what the perfect gift for me was: you!

And even though we are apart this year, the memories of all Christmases past brings me good cheer. I am a proud parent. Merry Christmas my angel. I am lucky to have such an amazing family.

Mom, you are truly irreplaceable. I am so lucky. I am so blessed to be in this family. Merry Christmas with lots of love and hugs!

Merry Christmas my dear and I love you. Spread the happiness and love! To cherish peace and goodwill, to be plenteous in mercy, is to have the real spirit of Christmas.

What if Christmas perhaps means a little bit more? It is more than that. It is a time for the contemplation of eternal things. The Christmas spirit is a spirit of giving and forgiving.

Best Xmas wishes! I miss you even more during this special time of year. Merry Christmas and happy holidays!

I wish we could enjoy this Christmas season together. May it bring with it a spirit of all that is fresh and new. May you have all three this Christmas.

Merry Christmas Christmas Wishes Images Video

Shakin' Stevens - Merry Christmas Everyone (Official Video)

All the major events of Christ's life, especially the passion, were celebrated on this date. In his letter to the Corinthians, Paul mentions Passover, presumably celebrated according to the local calendar in Corinth.

According to the calculation hypothesis, the celebration of the quartodecimal continued in some areas and the feast became associated with Incarnation.

The calculation hypothesis is considered academically to be "a thoroughly viable hypothesis", though not certain. This passage is generally considered a late interpellation.

But the manuscript includes another passage, one that is more likely to be authentic, that gives the passion as March In , Sextus Julius Africanus c.

This conclusion was based on solar symbolism, with March 25 the date of the equinox. As this implies a birth in December, it is sometimes claimed to be the earliest identification of December 25 as the nativity.

However, Africanus was not such an influential writer that it is likely he determined the date of Christmas.

The tractate De solstitia et aequinoctia conceptionis et nativitatis Domini nostri Iesu Christi et Iohannis Baptistae, falsely attributed to John Chrysostom , also argued that Jesus was conceived and crucified on the same day of the year and calculated this as March Who indeed is so unconquered as Our Lord?

Or, if they say that it is the birthday of the Sun, He is the Sun of Justice. The rival "History of Religions" hypothesis suggests that the Church selected December 25 date to appropriate festivities held by the Romans in honor of the Sun god Sol Invictus.

An explicit expression of this theory appears in an annotation of uncertain date added to a manuscript of a work by 12th-century Syrian bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi.

The scribe who added it wrote:. In these solemnities and revelries, the Christians also took part. Accordingly, when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day.

In , German Protestant Paul Ernst Jablonski argued Christmas was placed on December 25 to correspond with the Roman solar holiday Dies Natalis Solis Invicti and was therefore a "paganization" that debased the true church.

Hermann Usener [76] and others [3] proposed that the Christians chose this day because it was the Roman feast celebrating the birthday of Sol Invictus.

Modern scholar S. Hijmans, however, states that "While they were aware that pagans called this day the 'birthday' of Sol Invictus, this did not concern them and it did not play any role in their choice of date for Christmas.

Talley holds that the Roman Emperor Aurelian placed a festival of Sol Invictus on December 25 in order to compete with the growing rate of the Christian Church, which had already been celebrating Christmas on that date first.

With regard to a December religious feast of the deified Sun Sol , as distinct from a solstice feast of the birth or rebirth of the astronomical sun, one scholar has commented that "while the winter solstice on or around December 25 was well established in the Roman imperial calendar, there is no evidence that a religious celebration of Sol on that day antedated the celebration of Christmas".

But the medieval calendar was dominated by Christmas-related holidays. The forty days before Christmas became the "forty days of St. Martin" which began on November 11, the feast of St.

Martin of Tours , now known as Advent. By the High Middle Ages , the holiday had become so prominent that chroniclers routinely noted where various magnates celebrated Christmas.

King Richard II of England hosted a Christmas feast in at which twenty-eight oxen and three hundred sheep were eaten.

Caroling also became popular, and was originally performed by a group of dancers who sang. The group was composed of a lead singer and a ring of dancers that provided the chorus.

Various writers of the time condemned caroling as lewd, indicating that the unruly traditions of Saturnalia and Yule may have continued in this form.

Christmas during the Middle Ages was a public festival that incorporated ivy , holly , and other evergreens. In , King James I insisted that a play be acted on Christmas night and that the court indulge in games.

Associating it with drunkenness and other misbehaviour, the Puritans banned Christmas in England in the 17th century. In the early 19th century, the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church ushered in "the development of richer and more symbolic forms of worship, the building of neo-Gothic churches, and the revival and increasing centrality of the keeping of Christmas itself as a Christian festival" as well as "special charities for the poor" in addition to "special services and musical events".

Following the Protestant Reformation , many of the new denominations, including the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church , continued to celebrate Christmas.

However, in 17th century England, some groups such as the Puritans , strongly condemned the celebration of Christmas, considering it a Catholic invention and the "trappings of popery " or the "rags of the Beast ".

The calendar reform became a major point of tension between the Anglican party and the Puritan party. King Charles I of England directed his noblemen and gentry to return to their landed estates in midwinter to keep up their old-style Christmas generosity.

Protests followed as pro-Christmas rioting broke out in several cities and for weeks Canterbury was controlled by the rioters, who decorated doorways with holly and shouted royalist slogans.

As such, in Scotland, the Presbyterian Church of Scotland discouraged the observance of Christmas, and though James VI commanded its celebration in , attendance at church was scant.

At the same time, Christian residents of Virginia and New York observed the holiday freely. With the atheistic Cult of Reason in power during the era of Revolutionary France , Christian Christmas religious services were banned and the three kings cake was renamed the "equality cake" under anticlerical government policies.

In the UK, Christmas Day became a bank holiday in Boxing Day , the day after Christmas, was added in In the earlyth century, writers imagined Tudor Christmas as a time of heartfelt celebration.

In , Charles Dickens wrote the novel A Christmas Carol , which helped revive the "spirit" of Christmas and seasonal merriment. Dickens sought to construct Christmas as a family-centered festival of generosity, linking "worship and feasting, within a context of social reconciliation.

The term Scrooge became a synonym for miser , with "Bah! In , the future Queen Victoria wrote about her delight at having a Christmas tree, hung with lights , ornaments , and presents placed round it.

An image of the British royal family with their Christmas tree at Windsor Castle created a sensation when it was published in the Illustrated London News in A modified version of this image was published in the United States in Irving's stories depicted harmonious warm-hearted English Christmas festivities he experienced while staying in Aston Hall , Birmingham, England, that had largely been abandoned, [] and he used the tract Vindication of Christmas of Old English Christmas traditions, that he had transcribed into his journal as a format for his stories.

Nicholas popularly known by its first line: Twas the Night Before Christmas. In her book The First Christmas in New England , Harriet Beecher Stowe includes a character who complains that the true meaning of Christmas was lost in a shopping spree.

While the celebration of Christmas was not yet customary in some regions in the U. The First Congregational Church of Rockford, Illinois , "although of genuine Puritan stock", was 'preparing for a grand Christmas jubilee', a news correspondent reported in He has been called the "father of the American Christmas card".

Up to the s in the UK, many Christmas customs were restricted to the upper classes and better-off families. The mass of the population had not adopted many of the Christmas rituals that later became general.

The Christmas tree was rare. Christmas dinner might be beef or goose — certainly not turkey. In their stockings children might get an apple, orange, and sweets.

Full celebration of a family Christmas with all the trimmings only became widespread with increased prosperity from the s.

Post was still delivered on Christmas Day until League football matches continued in Scotland until the s while in England they ceased at the end of the s.

Under the state atheism of the Soviet Union, after its foundation in , Christmas celebrations—along with other Christian holidays—were prohibited in public.

European History Professor Joseph Perry wrote that likewise, in Nazi Germany , "because Nazi ideologues saw organized religion as an enemy of the totalitarian state, propagandists sought to deemphasize—or eliminate altogether—the Christian aspects of the holiday" and that "Propagandists tirelessly promoted numerous Nazified Christmas songs, which replaced Christian themes with the regime's racial ideologies.

As Christmas celebrations began to be held around the world even outside traditional Christian cultures in the 20th century, some Muslim-majority countries subsequently banned the practice of Christmas, claiming it undermines Islam.

Christmas Day is celebrated as a major festival and public holiday in countries around the world, including many whose populations are mostly non-Christian.

In some non-Christian areas, periods of former colonial rule introduced the celebration e. Hong Kong ; in others, Christian minorities or foreign cultural influences have led populations to observe the holiday.

Countries such as Japan, where Christmas is popular despite there being only a small number of Christians, have adopted many of the secular aspects of Christmas, such as gift-giving, decorations, and Christmas trees.

Among countries with a strong Christian tradition , a variety of Christmas celebrations have developed that incorporate regional and local cultures.

Christmas, along with Easter, is the period of highest annual church attendance. A survey by LifeWay Christian Resources found that six in ten Americans attend church services during this time.

Nativity scenes are known from 10th-century Rome. They were popularised by Saint Francis of Assisi from , quickly spreading across Europe.

Within some families, the pieces used to make the representation are considered a valuable family heirloom.

The traditional colors of Christmas decorations are red , green , and gold. Red symbolizes the blood of Jesus, which was shed in his crucifixion , while green symbolizes eternal life, and in particular the evergreen tree, which does not lose its leaves in the winter, and gold is the first color associated with Christmas, as one of the three gifts of the Magi , symbolizing royalty.

The Christmas tree was first used by German Lutherans in the 16th century, with records indicating that a Christmas tree was placed in the Cathedral of Strassburg in , under the leadership of the Protestant Reformer , Martin Bucer.

Since the 16th century, the poinsettia , a native plant from Mexico, has been associated with Christmas carrying the Christian symbolism of the Star of Bethlehem ; in that country it is known in Spanish as the Flower of the Holy Night.

Other traditional decorations include bells , candles , candy canes , stockings , wreaths , and angels. Both the displaying of wreaths and candles in each window are a more traditional Christmas display.

The concentric assortment of leaves, usually from an evergreen , make up Christmas wreaths and are designed to prepare Christians for the Advent season.

Candles in each window are meant to demonstrate the fact that Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the ultimate light of the world. Christmas lights and banners may be hung along streets, music played from speakers, and Christmas trees placed in prominent places.

Rolls of brightly colored paper with secular or religious Christmas motifs are manufactured for the purpose of wrapping gifts. In some countries, Christmas decorations are traditionally taken down on Twelfth Night.

For the Christian celebration of Christmas, the viewing of the Nativity play is one of the oldest Christmastime traditions, with the first reenactment of the Nativity of Jesus taking place in A.

Christmas Eve and Christmas Day church services often came to feature Nativity plays, as did schools and theatres. The earliest extant specifically Christmas hymns appear in fourth-century Rome.

Latin hymns such as " Veni redemptor gentium ", written by Ambrose , Archbishop of Milan, were austere statements of the theological doctrine of the Incarnation in opposition to Arianism.

In the 12th century the Parisian monk Adam of St. Victor began to derive music from popular songs, introducing something closer to the traditional Christmas carol.

The songs now known specifically as carols were originally communal folk songs sung during celebrations such as "harvest tide" as well as Christmas.

It was only later that carols began to be sung in church. Traditionally, carols have often been based on medieval chord patterns, and it is this that gives them their uniquely characteristic musical sound.

They are among the oldest musical compositions still regularly sung. The singing of carols initially suffered a decline in popularity after the Protestant Reformation in northern Europe, although some Reformers, like Martin Luther , wrote carols and encouraged their use in worship.

Carols largely survived in rural communities until the revival of interest in popular songs in the 19th century. The 18th-century English reformer Charles Wesley understood the importance of music to worship.

In addition to setting many psalms to melodies, which were influential in the Great Awakening in the United States, he wrote texts for at least three Christmas carols.

The best known was originally entitled "Hark! How All the Welkin Rings", later renamed " Hark! Completely secular Christmas seasonal songs emerged in the late 18th century.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, African American spirituals and songs about Christmas, based in their tradition of spirituals, became more widely known.

An increasing number of seasonal holiday songs were commercially produced in the 20th century, including jazz and blues variations.

In addition, there was a revival of interest in early music, from groups singing folk music, such as The Revels, to performers of early medieval and classical music.

A special Christmas family meal is traditionally an important part of the holiday's celebration, and the food that is served varies greatly from country to country.

Some regions have special meals for Christmas Eve, such as Sicily , where 12 kinds of fish are served. In the United Kingdom and countries influenced by its traditions, a standard Christmas meal includes turkey, goose or other large bird, gravy, potatoes, vegetables, sometimes bread and cider.

Special desserts are also prepared, such as Christmas pudding , mince pies , Christmas cake , Panettone and Yule log cake. Christmas cards are illustrated messages of greeting exchanged between friends and family members during the weeks preceding Christmas Day.

The traditional greeting reads "wishing you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year", much like that of the first commercial Christmas card , produced by Sir Henry Cole in London in Christmas cards are purchased in considerable quantities and feature artwork, commercially designed and relevant to the season.

The content of the design might relate directly to the Christmas narrative , with depictions of the Nativity of Jesus , or Christian symbols such as the Star of Bethlehem , or a white dove , which can represent both the Holy Spirit and Peace on Earth.

Other Christmas cards are more secular and can depict Christmas traditions , mythical figures such as Santa Claus , objects directly associated with Christmas such as candles, holly, and baubles, or a variety of images associated with the season, such as Christmastide activities, snow scenes, and the wildlife of the northern winter.

There are even humorous cards and genres depicting nostalgic scenes of the past such as crinolined shoppers in idealized 19th-century streetscapes.

Some prefer cards with a poem, prayer, or Biblical verse ; while others distance themselves from religion with an all-inclusive "Season's greetings".

A number of nations have issued commemorative stamps at Christmastide. Postal customers will often use these stamps to mail Christmas cards , and they are popular with philatelists.

These stamps are regular postage stamps , unlike Christmas seals , and are valid for postage year-round. They usually go on sale sometime between early October and early December and are printed in considerable quantities.

The exchanging of gifts is one of the core aspects of the modern Christmas celebration, making it the most profitable time of year for retailers and businesses throughout the world.

On Christmas, people exchange gifts based on the Christian tradition associated with Saint Nicholas , [] and the gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh which were given to the baby Jesus by the Magi.

A number of figures are associated with Christmas and the seasonal giving of gifts. The Scandinavian tomte also called nisse is sometimes depicted as a gnome instead of Santa Claus.

The best known of these figures today is red-dressed Santa Claus, of diverse origins. Nicholas was a 4th-century Greek bishop of Myra , a city in the Roman province of Lycia , whose ruins are 3 kilometres 1.

His feast day, December 6, came to be celebrated in many countries with the giving of gifts. Saint Nicholas traditionally appeared in bishop's attire, accompanied by helpers, inquiring about the behaviour of children during the past year before deciding whether they deserved a gift or not.

By the 13th century, Saint Nicholas was well known in the Netherlands, and the practice of gift-giving in his name spread to other parts of central and southern Europe.

At the Reformation in 16th—17th-century Europe, many Protestants changed the gift bringer to the Christ Child or Christkindl , corrupted in English to Kris Kringle, and the date of giving gifts changed from December 6 to Christmas Eve.

The transformation was accomplished with the aid of notable contributors including Washington Irving and the German-American cartoonist Thomas Nast — New York had originally been established as the Dutch colonial town of New Amsterdam and the Dutch Sinterklaas tradition was reinvented as Saint Nicholas.

Current tradition in several Latin American countries such as Venezuela and Colombia holds that while Santa makes the toys, he then gives them to the Baby Jesus, who is the one who actually delivers them to the children's homes, a reconciliation between traditional religious beliefs and the iconography of Santa Claus imported from the United States.

Greek children get their presents from Saint Basil on New Year's Eve, the eve of that saint's liturgical feast. Nikolaus wears a bishop 's dress and still brings small gifts usually candies, nuts, and fruits on December 6 and is accompanied by Knecht Ruprecht.

Although many parents around the world routinely teach their children about Santa Claus and other gift bringers, some have come to reject this practice, considering it deceptive.

Multiple gift-giver figures exist in Poland, varying between regions and individual families. As of , there is a difference of 13 days between the Julian calendar and the modern Gregorian calendar , which is used internationally for most secular purposes.

As a result, December 25 on the Julian calendar currently corresponds to January 7 on the calendar used by most governments and people in everyday life.

Therefore, the aforementioned Orthodox Christians mark December 25 and thus Christmas on the day that is internationally considered to be January 7.

However, other Orthodox Christians, such as those belonging to the jurisdictions of Constantinople , Bulgaria , Greece , Romania , Antioch , Alexandria , Albania , Cyprus , Finland , and the Orthodox Church in America , among others, began using the Revised Julian calendar in the early 20th century, which at present corresponds exactly to the Gregorian calendar.

A further complication is added by the fact that the Armenian Apostolic Church continues the original ancient Eastern Christian practice of celebrating the birth of Christ not as a separate holiday, but on the same day as the celebration of his baptism Theophany , which is on January 6.

This is a public holiday in Armenia, and it is held on the same day that is internationally considered to be January 6, because the Armenian Church in Armenia uses the Gregorian calendar.

However, there is also a small Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem , which maintains the traditional Armenian custom of celebrating the birth of Christ on the same day as Theophany January 6 , but uses the Julian calendar for the determination of that date.

As a result, this church celebrates "Christmas" more properly called Theophany on the day that is considered January 19 on the Gregorian calendar in use by the majority of the world.

In summary, there are four different dates used by different Christian groups to mark the birth of Christ, given in the table below. Christmas is typically a peak selling season for retailers in many nations around the world.

Sales increase dramatically as people purchase gifts, decorations, and supplies to celebrate. In the United States, the "Christmas shopping season" starts as early as October.

In the UK and Ireland, the Christmas shopping season starts from mid-November, around the time when high street Christmas lights are turned on.

In other sectors, the pre-Christmas increase in spending was even greater, there being a November—December buying surge of percent in bookstores and percent in jewelry stores.

In the same year employment in American retail stores rose from 1. In most Western nations, Christmas Day is the least active day of the year for business and commerce; almost all retail, commercial and institutional businesses are closed, and almost all industries cease activity more than any other day of the year , whether laws require such or not.

Scotland is currently planning similar legislation. Film studios release many high-budget movies during the holiday season, including Christmas films, fantasy movies or high-tone dramas with high production values to hopes of maximizing the chance of nominations for the Academy Awards.

One economist 's analysis calculates that, despite increased overall spending, Christmas is a deadweight loss under orthodox microeconomic theory , because of the effect of gift-giving.

This loss is calculated as the difference between what the gift giver spent on the item and what the gift receiver would have paid for the item.

Other deadweight losses include the effects of Christmas on the environment and the fact that material gifts are often perceived as white elephants , imposing cost for upkeep and storage and contributing to clutter.

Christmas has at times been the subject of controversy and attacks from various sources. Historically it was prohibited by Puritans when they briefly held power in England — , and in Colonial America where the Puritans outlawed the celebration of Christmas in One controversy is the occurrence of Christmas trees being renamed Holiday trees.

In the U. Supreme Court ruled in Lynch v. Donnelly that a Christmas display which included a Nativity scene owned and displayed by the city of Pawtucket, Rhode Island , did not violate the First Amendment.

The government of the People's Republic of China officially espouses state atheism, [] and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this end.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Christmas disambiguation and Christmas Day disambiguation.

Nativity scene depicted using Christmas lights. January 6]: Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem [9]. Main article: Nativity of Jesus.

Further information: Christmas traditions and Observance of Christmas by country. Main article: Christmas decoration.

Main article: Nativity play. Main article: Christmas music. The Herald Angels Sing. Main article: Christmas card. Main article: Christmas stamp.

Main article: Economics of Christmas. Main article: Christmas controversy. Christianity portal Holidays portal. Armenian Churches observed the nativity on January 6 even before the Gregorian calendar originated.

Some regions also celebrate primarily on December 24, rather than December BBC Learning English. December 29, Archived PDF from the original on October 1, Retrieved September 30, Gallup, Inc.

December 24, Archived from the original on November 16, Retrieved December 16, The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

World Religions in Practice. Coptic Orthodox Church Network. Archived from the original on December 28, Retrieved January 17, Dutchman News.

December 17, Archived from the original on December 26, Retrieved January 12, The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 12, Retrieved June 12, The Jerusalem Post.

Retrieved December 26, Pew Research Center. December 18, Archived from the original on March 10, Retrieved May 23, Who Celebrate It".

Archived from the original on December 7, Christmas: A Candid History. University of California Press. In the Council of Tours proclaimed that the entire period between Christmas and Epiphany should be considered part of the celebration, creating what became known as the twelve days of Christmas, or what the English called Christmastide.

On the last of the twelve days, called Twelfth Night, various cultures developed a wide range of additional special festivities.

The variation extends even to the issue of how to count the days. If December 26, the day after Christmas, is the first day, then Twelfth Night falls on January 6, the evening of Epiphany itself.

After Christmas and Epiphany were in place, on December 25 and January 6, with the twelve days of Christmas in between, Christians slowly adopted a period called Advent, as a time of spiritual preparation leading up to Christmas.

Introduction to Christian Liturgy. Fortress Press. We noted above that late medieval calendars introduced a reduced three-day octave for Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost that were retained in Roman Catholic and passed into Lutheran and Anglican calendars.

Retrieved November 27, Office of Personnel Management. September 1, December Holiday Customs. Lorenz Educational Press. Retrieved November 18, September 15, The Christmas Encyclopedia 3 ed.

Christians believe that a number of passages in the Bible are prophecies about future events in the life of the promised Messiah or Jesus Christ.

Most, but not all, of those prophecies are found in the Old Testament Born in Bethlehem Micah : "But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Juda, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.

The birth narrative in Luke's gospel is one of the most familiar passages in the Bible. Leaving their hometown of Nazareth, Mary and Joseph travel to Bethlehem to pay taxes.

Arriving late, they find no vacancy at the inn. They are, however, offered a stable, most likely a second room attached to a family dwelling where animals were sheltered—a room that would offer some privacy from the main family room for cooking, eating, and sleeping.

This "city of David" is the little town of Bethlehem of Christmas-carol fame, a starlit silhouette indelibly etched on Christmas cards.

No sooner was the baby born than angels announced the news to shepherds who spread the word. Prendergast, Robert C.

Degenhard, Therese Brown, Robert C. Retrieved November 24, Toward the Origins of Christmas. Peeters Publishers. Roll, p. Thomas Nelson.

November 3, Retrieved April 2, Christmas is not really about the celebration of a birth date at all. It is about the celebration of a birth. The fact of the date and the fact of the birth are two different things.

The calendrical verification of the feast itself is not really that important What is important to the understanding of a life-changing moment is that it happened, not necessarily where or when it happened.

The message is clear: Christmas is not about marking the actual birth date of Jesus. It is about the Incarnation of the One who became like us in all things but sin Hebrews and who humbled Himself "to the point of death-even death on a cross" Phil.

Christmas is a pinnacle feast, yes, but it is not the beginning of the liturgical year. It is a memorial, a remembrance, of the birth of Jesus, not really a celebration of the day itself.

We remember that because the Jesus of history was born, the Resurrection of the Christ of faith could happen. Archived from the original on April 7, The origins of the celebrations of Christmas and Epiphany, as well as the dates on which they are observed, are rooted deeply in the history of the early church.

There has been much scholarly debate concerning the exact time of the year when Jesus was born, and even in what year he was born.

Actually, we do not know either. The best estimate is that Jesus was probably born in the springtime, somewhere between the years of 6 and 4 BC, as December is in the middle of the cold rainy season in Bethlehem , when the sheep are kept inside and not on pasture as told in the Bible.

The lack of a consistent system of timekeeping in the first century, mistakes in later calendars and calculations, and lack of historical details to cross-reference events have led to this imprecision in fixing Jesus' birth.

This suggests that the Christmas celebration is not an observance of a historical date, but a commemoration of the event in terms of worship.

Harvard University. Throughout the Christian world the 25th of December is celebrated as the birthday of Jesus Christ. There was a time when the churches were not united regarding the date of the joyous event.

Many Christians kept their Christmas in April, others in May, and still others at the close of September, till finally December 25 was agreed upon as the most appropriate date.

The choice of that day was, of course, wholly arbitrary, for neither the exact date not the period of the year at which the birth of Christ occurred is known.

For purposes of commemoration, however, it is unimportant whether the celebration shall fall or not at the precise anniversary of the joyous event.

West Publishing Company. While the Washington and King birthdays are exclusively secular holidays, Christmas has both secular and religious aspects.

Associated Press. December 22, Retrieved December 24, God's human face: the Christ-icon. Sinai and the Monastery of St. Retrieved December BBC News.

Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved December 12, Oxford University Press. A History of Foreign Words in English. Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved December 13, January 22, New Catholic Encyclopedia.

Catholic University of America Press. Part Commemorations of the Martyrs. Archived February 21, , at the Wayback Machine. See the first entry.

The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Retrieved February 3, Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia.

Archived from the original on January 11, Archived from the original on September 23, Retrieved December 27, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.

Kessinger Publishing Company. Archived from the original on November 22, Towards the Origin of Christmas.

Kok Pharos Publishing. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved December 25, John Archived September 18, , at the Wayback Machine A sun connection is possible because Christians considered Jesus to be the "Sun of righteousness" prophesied in Malachi "But for you who fear my name, the sun of righteousness shall rise with healing in its wings.

You shall go out leaping like calves from the stall. Biblical Archaeology Society. Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved February 24, Therefore let us celebrate the festival Historical Dictionary of Catholicism.

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Yale, p. Roll, Susan K. Archived from the original on November 2, Retrieved June 20, Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved November 17, In: Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen , part 1.

Second edition. Note that the first edition, , doesn't have the discussion of Natalis Solis Invicti ; also Sol Invictus The Origins of the Liturgical Year.

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History Today. Archived from the original on December 29, Retrieved December 28, There is no doubt that A Christmas Carol is first and foremost a story concerned with the Christian gospel of liberation by the grace of God, and with incarnational religion which refuses to drive a wedge between the world of spirit and the world of matter.

Both the Christmas dinners and the Christmas dinner-carriers are blessed; the cornucopia of Christmas food and feasting reflects both the goodness of creation and the joy of heaven.

It is a significant sign of a shift in theological emphasis in the nineteenth century from a stress on the Atonement to a stress on the Incarnation, a stress which found outward and visible form in the sacramentalism of the Oxford Movement, the development of richer and more symbolic forms of worship, the building of neo-Gothic churches, and the revival and increasing centrality of the keeping of Christmas itself as a Christian festival.

In the course of the century, under the influence of the Oxford Movement's concern for the better observance of Christian festivals, Christmas became more and more prominent.

By the later part of the century cathedrals provided special services and musical events, and might have revived ancient special charities for the poor — though we must not forget the problems for large: parish-church cathedrals like Manchester, which on one Christmas Day had no less than eighty couples coming to be married the signing of the registers lasted until four in the afternoon.

The popularity of Dickens' A Christmas Carol played a significant part in the changing consciousness of Christmas and the way in which it was celebrated.

The popularity of his public readings of the story is an indication of how much it resonated with the contemporary mood, and contributed to the increasing place of the Christmas celebration in both secular and religious ways that was firmly established by the end of the nineteenth century.

January 11, January 1, We truly hope you enjoy this collection of merry Christmas wishes and, in the spirit of the season, pass these on and share!

Here are some general Christmas wishes and Christmas card sayings that can be used for anyone. If pictures are your thing, then check out and share these Christmas wishes images because a picture is worth a thousand Christmas messages!

Share some Christmas wishes for friends and best friends. Choose the one that is just right! Merry Christmas to you and your family! Find the perfect merry Christmas quotes.

Why not use that which is already wonderful? Text them just the right merry Christmas message. Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to you!

There are plenty of them so we hope you find the perfect short Christmas message! Here are even more Christmas wishes sayings and Christmas quotes for friends to help spread the joy of the season.

I wish you all the best and happy New Year too! Have a wonderful Christmas! Have a wonderful holiday!

Have a blessed Christmas! May you have a Merry Christmas! Merry Xmas wishes to you! Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!!

Merry Christmas and a happy New Year! Merry Christmas and all the best in the New Year! Merry Christmas! Merry Christmas my love. Happy New Year!

Have a happy holiday! Have the best Christmas ever. Merry Christmas and a happy New Year!! Merry Xmas greetings!

Merry Christmas and a healthy New Year! Have a blessed holiday! May your home be filled with love, lights and singing. Happy Holidays!

Spread the spirit of the season! Every little bit helps! Spread the love and inspiration! Apparently YOU told Santa you were good this year and he died laughing.

Mother took me to see him in a department store and he asked for my autograph. Spread the joy and laughter! I am grateful to be your friend.

Happy New Year to you too, may you have joy all year through. You are my best friend in the world and I will carry you in my heart everywhere I go.

Merry Christmas friend! May the glow of the Christmas candles brighten your day. Merry Christmas my friend! I am so lucky to have you as my friend.

Merry Christmas and a wonderful New Year!

Merry Christmas

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